Data-Driven Innovation

Research Library

MicroLyte Vet is backed by over a decade of research. This page provides a complete list of all available research, including many publicly available, full-text articles published in Biomaterials, Annals of Surgery, and more.

MicroLyte Vet’s 72-hour Antimicrobial Performance
A Agarwal, et al., 2010. Biomaterials31(4):680-90.

Surfaces modified with nanometer-thick silver-impregnated polymeric films that kill bacteria but support growth of mammalian cells


Silver is a well-established antimicrobial that can be toxic to mammalian cells and impair wound healing at high concentrations, such as 100 μg/cm2 a dose used in a widely used silver wound dressing.

In this study, polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) made from PAH* and PAA* that were loaded with 0.39 ug/cm2of silver and buffered to a pH of 7.5 were evaluated for: 1. Ability to allow attachment and growth of fibroblast cells. 2. Antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis.


PEMs that have been engineered to contain very low levels of therapeutic silver with surfaces that allow for mammalian cell attachment are effective in both killing bacterial cells while maintaining mammalian cell growth.

Silver-loaded PEMs contain up to 250X less silver than conventional silver dressings and show promise of becoming a safe alternative to the toxic standard of care silver dressings.

Figure 6

Mouse fibroblasts attach and grow equally well on silver-loaded PEMs or silver-free PEMs that are buffered to a pH of 7.5.

Figure 8(b)

PEMs incubated in 5 mM and 0.5 mM silver nitrate solution killed 99.99% and 90% of S. epidermidis, respectively.

Agarwal, Ankit, et al., (2011) Advanced functional materials21.10: 1863-1873.

Polymeric multilayers that contain silver can be stamped onto biological tissues to provide antibacterial activity.


Silver-loaded PEMs are difficult to pick up because they are very thin, and since the goal is to create a wound dressing that can be easily picked up and placed onto the wound bed, this study describes how to transform PEMs into a tangible medical device.

This method included adsorption of microspheres with micrometer thickness to PEMs transforming them into a material that can be stamped from the production template onto wounds.

The antimicrobial efficacy of silver-loaded PEMs with adsorbed microspheres was then evaluated using cadaver skin allografts contaminated with S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa.


This study identified a method to transfer nanometer-thick silver-loaded PEMs unto cadaver skin allografts using micrometer-thick microspheres while preserving the antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa using very low levels of silver.

This study also demonstrated that antimicrobial activity is maintained for over 48 hours, suggesting the sustained release of silver over time.

Figure 9

1.0 ±0.12 ug/cm2of silver-loaded PEMs was sufficient to cause a 6 log10 CFU decrease in S. epidermidis within 12 hrs. on cadaver skin; bactericidal activity of PEMs was maintained for over 48 hours.

Supplementary Figure 7

Similar results were seen in P. aeruginosausing PEMs with the same concentration of 1.0 ±0.12 ug/cm2of silver.

Guthrie, K. M., et al. (2012). Annals of surgery256(2): 371.

Antibacterial efficacy of silver-impregnated polyelectrolyte multilayers immobilized on a biological dressing in a murine wound infection model.


Biological dressings are indicated for clean wounds because colonized or infected wounds can lead to non-adherence, loss of graft, and subsequent waste of resources.

Wound colonization can be hard to detect, and biological dressings can trap microbes and potentiate wound infection.

This article assessed the effectiveness of combining a bioresorbable, low-concentration-silver matrix, with Biobrane, a biological dressing, in managing the bioburden of wounds in mice.


Covering wounds with a bioresorbable silver matrix before application of a biological dressing resulted in a decrease in bacteria to levels below that considered to indicate infection in a clinical situation, and significantly less than that seen with application of untreated biological dressing.

The antibacterial efficacy of Biobrane-Ag, combined with its significantly lower loadings of silver than conventional dressings, makes it a promising potential treatment for use in humans.

Figure 9

The Biobrane-Silver Matrix combination significantly decreased the concentration ofS. aureuspresent, compared to untreated Biobrane (P< 0.001)

Supplementary Figure 7

Treatment of wounds with Biobrane-Ag yielded wounds in which the number of bacteria recovered was reduced by approximately 5 orders of magnitude to an average of 7.0 × 10^2 CFU/cm^2 (P<0.001 vs control wounds).

KM Guthrie, et al. (2013). Journal of Burn Care & Research34(6): e359-e367.

Integration of Silver-impregnated Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Into Murine Splinted Cutaneous Wound Beds


This is the first study performed to assess the effects of silver and polyelectrolyte multilayers on wound healing in mice.

Two mouse models were tested: 1) healthy with normal wound healing, and 2) diabetic with impaired wound healing.

This study aimed to demonstrate that silver NP/PEMs will not impair wound healing in healthy or diabetic mice.


In healthy mice, no significant differences in re-epithelialization, epithelial gap, percentage of collagen, and inflammation score were seen at study conclusion. Early histological differences were transient, and wounds healed to closure in the same time period.

In diabetic mice, there was an initial lag in wound healing, but was short-lived and did not delay definitive wound closure, and histopathology of wounds showed no difference.

Figure 5

In healthy mice, silver-treated wounds were significantly more closed on day 3 versus control group on days 3, but there were no differences noted at any other time point, and both groups were fully healed at day 12.

Figure 6

In diabetic mice, wound closure of silver-treated wounds was significantly less on days 3 , 6 and 9 but similar thereafter until complete closure on day 21.

M Herron, et al. (2014). Advanced healthcare materials3(6): 916-928.

Reduction in Wound Bioburden using a Silver-Loaded Dissolvable Microfilm Construct


Silver is well known for its antimicrobial activity, but side effects include staining, tissue toxicity, and delayed wound healing.

In this study, the effectiveness of polymer nanofilms containing silver for the management of microbial colonization of wounds while permitting re-epithelialization is described.


This study demonstrates that modification of wound beds using nanofilms with very low levels of silver is a promising approach for the management of wound bioburden and does not impede re-epithelialization.

Figure 4: Silver nanofilms immobilized on human skin dermis reduced >5 log 10 CFU of S. aureusand P. aeruginosa, while releasing <1 μg cm−2 silver per day.

Figure 7

Mouse wounds that were modified by silver nanofilms had an average of only 6.1 ×103CFU cm−2of S. aureus, that is, an average of 2.4 log 10 reduction in bacterial burden.

Figure 8

Microlyte-treated wounds close faster and more completely compared to untreated wounds, and silver staining is absent from all wounds.

Published Research Articles

  • SW Manning, et al., Efficacy of a bioresorbable matrix in healing complex chronic wounds: An open-label prospective pilot study. Wounds, 2020. 32(11).
  • M Herron, et al., Interfacial stacks of polymeric nanofilms on soft biological surfaces that release multiple agents. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 2016. 8(40): p. 26541-26551.
  • M Herron, et al., Gallium‐loaded dissolvable microfilm constructs that provide sustained release of Ga3+ for management of biofilms. Advanced healthcare materials, 2015. 4(18): p. 2849-2859.
  • M Herron, et al., Reduction in wound bioburden using a silver‐loaded dissolvable microfilm construct. Advanced healthcare materials, 2014. 3(6): p. 916-928.
  • KM Guthrie, et al., Integration of silver-impregnated polyelectrolyte multilayers into murine-splinted cutaneous wound beds. Journal of Burn Care & Research, 2013. 34(6): p. e359-e367.
  • KM Guthrie, et al., Antibacterial efficacy of silver-impregnated polyelectrolyte multilayers immobilized on a biological dressing in a murine wound infection model. Annals of surgery, 2012. 256(2): p. 371.
  • A Agarwal, et al., Polymeric multilayers that localize the release of chlorhexidine from biologic wound dressings. Biomaterials, 2012. 33(28): p. 6783-6792.
  • Agarwal, A., et al., Polymeric materials for chronic wound and burn dressings, in Advanced Wound Repair Therapies. 2011, Elsevier. p. 186-208.
  • A Agarwal, et al., Polymeric multilayers that contain silver can be stamped onto biological tissues to provide antibacterial activity. Advanced functional materials, 2011. 21(10): p. 1863-1873.
  • A Agarwal, et al., Surfaces modified with nanometer-thick silver-impregnated polymeric films that kill bacteria but support growth of mammalian cells. Biomaterials, 2010. 31(4): p. 680-690.

Published Abstracts and Conference Proceedings

  • MJ Schurr, et al., Novel polymeric bioresorbable matrix promotes cell growth and eradicates pseudomonas biofilm. Boswick Burn and Wound Care Symposium, 2020.
  • K Trambadia, et al., Use of a novel bioresorbable wound matrix dressing with a polymeric coating containing silver in the treatment of diabetic foot and venous leg wounds. Symposium on Advanced Wound Healing, 2020.
  • G Pranami, et al., Microfilm polymeric matrix containing silver and gallium kills bacteria within biofilms. Wound Healing Society Annual Meeting, 2020.
  • G Pranami, et al., A novel ultrathin bioresorbable matrix containing silver and gallium for killing biofilm bacteria. Military Health System Research Symposium, 2020.
  • A Agarwal, et al., Silver impregnated nanometer thick polymer films stamped on wound beds do not impair healing. 20th Annual Meeting of Wound Healing Society (WHS), Orlando, FL, 2020.
  • Treadwell, T., The use of absorbable polyvinyl/polymeric microfilm matrix with silver in the treatment of venous ulcers: A pilot study. Symposium on Advanced Wound Healing Fall, 2019.
  • Ostler, M., Compression is key: Silver, elastic compression stockinet, and hyper-absorbent felt in direct contact with vlu granulation tissue reverses comorbid inflammation, pain and exudate that delays effective compression therapy. Symposium on Advanced Wound Healing Fall, 2019.
  • MJ Schurr, et al., Pre-clinical and clinical performance of a lightweight synthetic bioresorbable polyelectrolyte multilayer nanofilm-based antimicrobial matrix . Military Health System Research Symposium, 2019.
  • Miller, M., Use of uniquely adherent silver film (Microlyte® Matrix) to promote healing of recalcitrant diabetic neuropathic ulcers. Wild on Wounds, 2019.
  • McGuire, J., Use of a novel bioresorbable wound matrix dressing with a polymeric coating containing silver in the treatment of diabetic foot and venous leg wounds. Symposium on Advanced Wound Healing Fall, 2019.
  • Manning, S., Clinical evaluation of Microlyte® Ag bioresorbable matrix in complex chronic, recalcitrant wounds American College of Surgeons Clinical Congress, 2019.
  • Garoufalis, M., A new novel approach for the treatment of chronic wounds. Desert Foot 2019.
  • Chatelain, R., The efficacy of a synthetic bioresorbable antimicrobial matrix as an implantable material for at-risk surgical wounds. Symposium on Advanced Wound Healing Spring, 2019.
  • Schurr, M., The use of Microlyte® bioresorbable wound matrix as a surgical implant to prevent postoperative surgical site infection. Innovations in Wound Healing 2018, 2018.
  • Price, T., An ultrathin bioresorbable matrix with antimicrobial silver in the treatment of chronic contaminated wounds. Symposium on Advanced Wound Healing Fall, 2018.
  • Pranami, G., Microfilm bioresorbable matrix containing silver for cell growth and combating bacteria in deep wound tissue. American Burn Association, 2018.
  • Pranami, G., Effective antibiofilm bioresorbable microfilm matrix containing gallium and silver. Wound Healing Society, 2018.
  • Manning, S., Microlyte® Matrix stimulates wound closure in full-thickness, chronic wound in patient with multiple risk factors for non-healing. Innovations in Wound Healing 2018, 2018.
  • Crawford, E., Synthetic resorbable antibiofilm polymeric wound matrix containing gallium and silver. Innovations in Wound Healing, 2018.
  • Beatty, A., Usage of a fully synthetic bioresorbable antimicrobial matrix containing ionic and metallic silver to treat difficult-to-heal leg ulcers suspected of biofilms. Symposium on Advanced Wound Healing Fall, 2018.
  • Pranami, G., Ultrathin hydrogel dressings containing gallium ions and metallic silver for the elimination of biofilms. Wound Healing Society, 2017.
  • McAnulty, J., Use of an antimicrobial microfilm wound dressing in spontaneous wounds in animals. Wound Healing Society, 2017.
  • JL Dalsin, et al., Ultrathin microfilm dressing with silver and gallium ions disperse biofilmson biological surfaces. Symposium on Advanced Wound Care, 2017.
  • Humphrey, D., Ultrathin dissolvable antimicrobial wound dressing is safe and effective in patients with complex chronic wounds. Wound Healing Society, 2017.
  • Agarwal, A., et al., Microfilm wound contact dressing with metallic silver that conforms to wound-bed, prevents wound infection, and allows normal healing. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 2016. 24(2).
  • A Agarwal, et al., Ultrathin dissolvable wound contact dressing with metallic silver that prevents infection and allows normal healing. Wound Healing Society, 2016.
  • K Brandenburg, et al., Anti-biofilm efficacy of novel wound dressings containing tryptophan. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 2015. 23(2).
  • A Agarwal, et al., Transparent microfilm dressing with metallic silver particles prevents wound infection and allows normal wound healing. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 2014. 22(2).
  • A Agarwal, et al., Dissolvable microfilm dressing with silver-expedites healing of contaminated excisional wounds in mice. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 2013. 21(2).
  • KM Guthrie, et al., Antibacterial efficacy of silver-impregnated polyelectrolyte multilayers immobilized on a biological dressing in a murine wound infection model. Annals of surgery, 2012. 256(2): p. 371.
  • Agarwal, A., et al., Transferrable antibacterial nanofilms of silver for artificial skin. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 2012. 20(2).
  • A Agarwal, et al., Biologic dressing stamped with a chlorhexidine impregnated polymer film prevents infection and promotes normal healing in a murine wound-model. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 2012. 20(2).
  • N Shah, et al., Effect of polyelectrolyte multilayer assembly on accessibility of immobilized growth factor. Society for Biomaterials (SFB) Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, 2011.
  • A Agarwal, et al., Integration of silver-impregnated polymeric multilayers onto biological tissues to provide antibacterial activity. Society for Biomaterials (SFB) Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, 2011.
  • A Agarwal, et al., Antibacterial molecular coatings of silver for integration in wound-beds. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 2011. 19(2).
  • H Singh, et al., Mechanical transfer of silver into wound beds utilizing nanometer-thick polymer films that do not impair wound healing. American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) Veterinary Symposium, Seattle, WA, 2010.
  • A Agarwal, et al., Nanoscopically thin polymer films with silver that kill bacteria with but support growth of fibroblasts. Polymeric Materials Science & Engineering Proceedings 101, 1450, 238th American Chemical Society (ACS) National Meeting, Washington, DC, 2009.
  • A Agarwal, et al., A novel, localized-release silver delivery system for chronic wounds. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 2009. 17(2).